Leroy R. Grumman Cadet Squadron, NER-NY-153

Civil Air Patrol - The official auxiliary of the United States Air Force

Saluting

ORIGIN OF THE HAND SALUTE

 

No one knows the precise origin of today’s hand salute. From earliest times and in many distant armies throughout history, the right hand (or "weapon hand") has been raised as a greeting of friendship. The idea may have been to show that you weren't ready to use a rock or other weapon. Courtesy required that the inferior make the gesture first. Certainly there is some connection between this old gesture and our present salute.

 

One romantic legend has it that today’s military salute descended from the medieval knight's gesture of raising his visor to reveal his identity as a courtesy on the approach of a superior.

 

The military salute has in fact had many different forms over the centuries. At one time it was rendered with both hands! In old prints one may see left-handed salutes. In some instances lowering the saber with one hand and touching the cap visor with the other rendered the salute.

 

The following explanation of the origin of the hand salute is perhaps closest to the truth: It was a long-established military custom for juniors to remove their headgear in the presence of superiors. In the British Army as late as the American Revolution a soldier saluted by removing his hat.  But with the advent of more cumbersome headgear in the 18th and 19th centuries, the act of removing one’s hat was gradually converted into the simpler gesture of grasping the visor, and issuing a courteous salutation. From there it finally became conventionalized into something resembling our modern hand salute.

 

As early as 1745 (more than two-and-a-half centuries ago) a British order book states that: "The men are ordered not to pull off their hats when they pass an officer, or to speak to them, but only to clap up their hands to their hats and bow as they pass."

 

Most historians believe, however, that the U.S. Military salute was influenced more by the British Navy then the British Army. The Naval salute differs from the "Open Hand" British Army Salute in that the palm of the hand faces down towards the shoulder. This dates back to the days of sailing ships, when tar and pitch were used to seal the timber from seawater. To protect their hands, officer wore white gloves and it was considered most undignified to present a dirty palm in the salute, so the hand was turned through 90 degrees.

 

Whatever the actual origin of today’s hand salute, clearly it has always been used to indicate a sign of RESPECT – further recognition that in the profession of arms military courtesy is both a right and a responsibility of every soldier, sailor, and airman.

 

 

 

Requirements: Halted at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

Hand Salute.
This is used for training purposes only. The command is Hand, SALUTE, and it is done in two counts.

On the command SALUTE, the cadet raises the right hand smartly in the most direct manner while at the same time extending and joining the fingers. Keep the palm flat and facing the body.

Place the thumb along the forefingers, keeping the palm flat and forming a straight line between the fingertips and elbows. Tilt the palm slightly toward the face. Hold the upper arm horizontal, slightly forward of the body and parallel to the ground. Ensure the tip of the middle finger touches the right front corner of the headdress.

If wearing a nonbilled hat, ensure the middle finger touches the outside corner of the right eyebrow or the front corner of glasses. The rest of the body will remain at the position of attention.

This is count one of the movement. To complete count two of the movement, bring the arm smoothly and smartly downward, retracing the path used to raise the arm. Cup the hand as it passes the waist, and return to the position of attention.

 

Exchange of Salutes. The salute is a courteous exchange of greetings, with the junior member always saluting first. When returning or rendering an individual salute, the head and eyes are turned toward the Colors or person saluted. When in ranks, the position of attention is maintained unless otherwise directed. Members of the Civil Air Patrol in uniform exchange salutes under the following conditions:

 

  1. Outdoors, salutes are exchanged upon recognition between Officers, between Officers and Cadets, and between Cadets. Saluting outdoors means salutes are exchanged when the persons involved are outside a building. For example, if a person is on a porch, a covered sidewalk, a bus stop, a covered or open entryway, or a reviewing stand, the salute will be exchanged with a person on the sidewalk outside the structure or with a person approaching or in the same structure. This applies both on and off military installations. The junior member should initiate the salute in time to allow the senior officer to return it. To prescribe an exact distance for all circumstances is not practical, but good judgment indicates when salutes should be exchanged. A superior carrying articles in both hands need not return the salute, but he or she should nod in return or verbally acknowledge the salute. If the junior member is carrying articles in both hands, verbal greetings should be exchanged. Also, use these procedures when greeting an officer of a friendly foreign nation.
  2. Indoors, except for formal reporting, salutes are not rendered. 
  3. In formation, members do not salute or return a salute unless given the command to do so. Normally the person in charge salutes and acknowledges salutes for the whole formation.
  4. In groups, but not in formation, when a senior officer approaches, the first individual noticing the officer calls the group to attention. All members face the officer and salute. If the officer addresses an individual or the group, all remain at attention (unless otherwise ordered) until the end of the conversation, at which time they salute the officer.
  5. In public gatherings, such as sporting events, meetings, or when a salute would be inappropriate or impractical, salutes between individuals need not be rendered.
  6. Persons in uniform may salute civilians. The President of the United States, as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, is always accorded the honor of a salute. Also, if the exchange of salutes is otherwise appropriate, exchanging salutes upon recognition is customary for military members in civilian clothes.
  7. In a work detail, individual workers do not salute. The person in charge salutes for the entire detail. 
  8. Any Cadet or Officer recognizing a need to salute or a need to return one may do so anywhere anytime.

Position of Attention

 

To come to attention, bring the heels together smartly and on line. Place the heels as near each other as the conformation of the body permits, and ensure the feet are turned out equally, forming a 45-degree angle. Keep the legs straight without stiffening or locking the knees.

 

The body is erect with hips level, chest lifted, back arched, and shoulders square and even. Arms hang straight down alongside the body without stiffness, and the wrists are straight with the forearms.

 

Place thumbs, which are resting along the first joint of the forefinger, along the seams of the trousers or sides of the skirt. Hands are cupped (but not clenched as a fist) with palms facing the leg.

 

The head is kept erect and held straight to the front with the chin drawn in slightly so the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes are to the front, with the line of sight parallel to the ground.

 

The weight of the body rests equally on the heels and balls of both feet, and silence and immobility are required.

Rest Positions

 

 

Requirements: Halted at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

Execute rests (parade rest, at ease, rest, and fall out) from a halt and only from the position of attention as follows:

 

Parade Rest

 

The command is Parade, REST.


On the command REST, the cadet will raise the left foot from the hip just enough to clear the ground and move it smartly to the left so the heels are 12 inches apart, as measured from the inside of the heels. Keep the legs straight, but not stiff, and the heels on line. As the left foot moves, bring the arms, fully extended, to the back of the body, uncupping the hands in the process; and extend and join the fingers, pointing them toward the ground. The palms will face outwards. Place the right hand in the palm of the left, right thumb over the left to form an "X" Keep head and eyes straight ahead, and remain silent and immobile.


At Ease

 

The command is AT EASE.


On the command AT EASE, cadets may relax in a standing position, but they must keep the right foot in place. Their position in the formation will not change, and silence will be maintained.


Rest

 

The command is REST.


On the command REST, the same requirements for at ease apply, but moderate speech is permitted.


Fall Out

 

The command is FALL OUT.


On the command FALL OUT, cadets may relax in a standing position or break ranks. They must remain in the immediate area, and no specific method of dispersal is required. Moderate speech is permitted.


To resume the position of attention from any of the rests (except fall out), the command is (for example) Flight, ATTENTION. On the command Flight, the cadets assume the position of parade rest: and at the command ATTENTION, they assume the position of attention.

Reporting

 

Indoors - When reporting to an officer in his office, the junior removes his headgear, unless you are performing guard duty in which you will leave your headgear on. Make any adjustments to your uniform you may find necessary before you enter (such as lint, gig line, shoes, necktie, ribbons and pin-on insignias).

 

Knock on the door once firmly and loud enough to be heard in an average-sized office. If there is no answer within a reasonable amount of time, knock once, again.

 

When you are told to enter, or told to report, enter the room taking the most direct route to within two paces (a pace equals a step or 24 inches) in front of the officer’s desk, halt, salute, and report.

 

You will report by saying “Sir/Ma’am, (your grade and last name) reporting as ordered.” Omit “as ordered,” when you are reporting on your own initiative. For example, “Sir, Cadet Smith reporting as ordered.” The salute is held until the report is completed and the salute has been returned by the officer.

 

When the business is completed, the junior salutes, holds the salute until it has been returned, executes the appropriate facing movement (typically an about, face) and departs. Remember to be courteous and close the door behind you if you found it closed when you arrived.

 

As mentioned before, you may be asked to report indoors during a ceremony. This is typical during award ceremonies. You report in the same manner as mentioned for reporting to an officer in their office, however you omit knocking. If accepting an award, be prepared to face the audience for recognition and photographs and do not forget to maintain proper military bearing at all times.


Outdoors - When reporting outdoors, the junior halts approximately one pace in front of the officer, salutes, and reports (as when indoors). When the junior is dismissed by the officer, the junior salutes, faces about and returns to their prior duties.

 

If you are a part of a formation, the process is a bit more formal, but essentially the same. The individual in charge of your formation will have you in a formation called in line. They will command, “(Grade, Last Name), (pause) FRONT AND CENTER.” For example, “Cadet Smith…FRONT AND CENTER.”

 

Upon hearing your name, you will assume the position of attention.

 

On the command “FRONT AND CENTER”, you will take one step backwards (with coordinating arm swing), face to the left or right, proceed to the closest flank, and then proceeds to the front of the formation by the most direct route.

 

You will then halt one pace in front of the individual in charge, salute and report.

 

When business is complete, the individual in charge will dismiss you by commanding “RETURN TO RANKS”. You will then salute, face about and return by the same route to the same position in the ranks.

 

In all cases, but especially when reporting, display respect for those with higher rank and grade, don’t be overawed by it.

Drill - Background

A Brief History

In ancient history, the most powerful, efficient and developed empires developed ways of moving organized units of troops from one place to another on the battlefield, without individuals getting mixed up with other units. Otherwise, as masses of people maneuvered amongst each other individuals would get lost and end up having to attach themselves to any old unit. A system of flags was developed so people could identify their own units (and side) on the field and make their way their correct flag bearer if they got separated. But sticking to "formed up" squads was better, forming a box of men who moved as a single body. Overall it meant command systems were effective - men stayed together and could be commanded as units. This discipline facilitates effective realization of tactical management, and the result is a superior military organization.

During what historians have reluctantly come to call “The Military Revolution”, European armies between 1550 and 1720 became generally state-controlled, financed and permanent. There was a resultant loss of individuality, with the need for better organization, good training - especially in drill - and strict discipline. Training became an institution.  Since then, drill has become increasingly important as part of training, discipline and military parades.


Drill and Politics

A military organization that regularly parades in public displays itself as highly professional. Even though the parade itself does not perform any useful military function in a conflict or emergency situation, it has an affect in times of peace and in build-ups to times of conflict. A rag-tag group is likely to be unable to put on parades, hence it holds that larger and better military organizations can display their discipline by means of public performances. It therefore acts as a psychological tool and a deterrent - it says that the military organization is ready, strong and trained.

For example, North Korea was facing off against the USA in 2002/2003 and making politically aggressive claims that it was developing nuclear weaponry. It put on a large number of military parades, and received attention in the news, commenting on how "modern" their army and military was. They could clearly be seen to be skilled; and this would act as a deterrent against lesser armies.  So merely as a deterrent and as home inspiration, drill and parades perform useful military and political functions.


Drill and Physical Training

A military cadet or recruit will spend what at times appears to be an apparent eternity standing motionless at attention, sometimes in seemingly unbearable cold and warmth. But with each such session, the cold becomes a little more bearable, the motionlessness becomes more familiar and more elegant and the cadet's/recruit's body learns a little better how to conform completely to the wishes of its operator.

With drill comes increased control over your own body. Once drill is internalized and your body is accustomed to the discipline, it becomes more like a relaxing meditation than hard work. Retrospectively, it feels to some like they no longer find it hard... it is actually hard, but, they have become accustomed to the difficulty. 

Nearly everyone who came into the Depot from civilian life brought with him the tortuous notion that, to drill smartly, one had to restrict and frustrate the natural action of the body. [Through drill] men came to inhabit and use their bodies less self-consciously, with an economy of movement.

William Barlow (2005)

Drill - Commands and Cadence

Types of Commands

 

A drill command is an oral order. Most drill commands have two parts, the preparatory command and the command of execution. In the "Movements" section below, the 'preparatory commands' have their first letter capitalized and all letters in boldface (Squadron), the 'commands of execution' are completely capitalized and in boldface (ATTENTION).

 

The preparatory command explains what the movement will be. Military Training Instructors often call this the thinking command. It allows the individual performing the drill movement to form a mental picture in their mind of the movement that is about to take place. When calling a unit to attention or halting a unit's march, the preparatory command includes the unit's designation. In the command Flight, HALT, the word Flight is the preparatory command. At the same time, it designates the unit.

 

The command of execution follows the preparatory command. The command of execution explains when the movement will be carried out. In Forward, MARCH, the command of execution is MARCH.

 

In certain commands, the preparatory command and the command of execution are combined, for example: FALL IN, AT EASE, and REST. These commands are given at a uniformly high pitch and a louder volume than that of a normal command of execution.

 

Supplementary commands are given when one unit of the element must execute a movement different from the other units or must execute the same movement at a different time. Two examples are CONTINUE THE MARCH and STAND FAST.


Informational commands have no preparatory command or command of execution, and they are not supplementary. Two examples are PREPARE FOR INSPECTION and DISMISS THE SQUADRON.

 

General Rules for Commands: When giving commands, the leader is at the position of attention. Good military bearing is necessary for good leadership. While marching, the leader must be in step with the formation at all times.

 

The commander faces the troops when giving commands except when the element is part of a larger drill element or when the commander is relaying commands in a ceremony.


When a command requires a unit to execute a movement different from other units (or the same movement at a different time), the subordinate commander gives a supplementary command over the right shoulder. Supplementary commands are given between the element commander's preparatory command and command of execution. When the squadron commander's preparatory command is Squadron, the flight commander's preparatory command is Flight.

 

When flights of a squadron are to execute a movement in order, such as a column movement, the flight commander of A Flight repeats the squadron commander's preparatory command. The commanders of the other flights give a supplementary command, such as CONTINUE THE MARCH. When the squadron commander gives the command of execution, A Flight executes the movement; and, at the command of the appropriate flight commander, each of the following flights executes the movement at approximately the same location and in the same manner as A Flight.

 

Use the command AS YOU WERE to revoke a preparatory command. After the command of execution has been given and the movement has begun, give other appropriate commands to bring the element to the desired position. If a command is improperly given, the individuals execute the movement to the best of their ability.

 

When giving commands, flight commanders may add the letter of their flight to the command, such as A Flight, HALT or B Flight, Forward, MARCH. When commands are given to a squadron in which one flight stands fast or continues to march, the flight commander commands STAND FAST or CONTINUE THE MARCH, as appropriate.

 

The preparatory command and the command of execution are given as the heel of the foot corresponding to the direction of the movement strikes the ground.


 Cadence

Cadence is the measure or beat of movement. Commanders must match the rhythm of their commands with the cadence of their unit. The interval that produces the best effect in a movement is the one that allows one step between the preparatory command and the command of execution. In some instances, you should lengthen the interval enough to permit proper understanding of the movement to be executed and allow for supplementary commands when necessary. Measure the interval exactly in the beat of the drill cadence. When marching, give commands for executing movements to the right when the right foot strikes the ground; give commands for executing movements to the left when the left foot strikes the ground. In commands containing two or more words, place the point of emphasis on the last word. For example, in Right Flank, give the command Flank as the right foot hits the ground.

 

For a squadron or larger unit, the interval between the squadron or group commanders preparatory command and the command of execution should be long enough to allow the marching elements to take three steps between commands.

 

Counting Cadence:


The instructor counts cadence to acquaint students with cadence rhythm. When trainees get out of step, the instructor either corrects them by counting cadence or halts the element and then moves them off in step. Counting cadence helps teach coordination and rhythm. Cadence is given in sets of two as follows: HUT, TOOP, THREEP, FOURP; HUT, TOOP, THREEP, FOURP. To help keep in step, unit members should keep the head up and watch the head and shoulders of the person directly in front of them.

 

The command for the element to count cadence is Count Cadence, COUNT. Give the command of execution as the left foot strikes the ground. The next time the left foot strikes the ground, the group counts cadence for eight steps, as follows: ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR; ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR. Do not shout the counts. Give them sharply and clearly, and separate each number distinctly.

 

In counting cadence in the movement Right Step, the count of ONE is given on the right foot because the right foot is moved first.

Drill - Movements

Note - Steps and Marching

When executed from a halt, all steps and marchings begin with the left foot, except right step and close march.

 

Both the preparatory command and the command of execution are given as the foot in the direction of the turn strikes the ground. For units no larger than a flight, the preparatory command is normally given as the heel of the left (right) foot strikes the ground, and the command of execution is given when the heel of the left (right) foot next strikes the ground.

For units larger than a flight, time is allowed for the subordinate commanders to give appropriate supplementary commands. The pause between commands is three paces.


Change Step

Requirements: Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The command is Change Step, MARCH. On the command MARCH, given as the right foot strikes the ground, the cadet takes one more 24-inch step with the left foot.

 

Then in one count, place the ball of the right foot alongside (not behind) the heel of the left foot, suspend arm swing, and shift the weight of the body to the right foot. Step off with the left foot in a 24-inch step, resuming coordinated arm swing.

 

The upper portion of the body remains at the position of attention throughout.


Double Time

 

Requirements: Halted or Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Double Time

 

To march in double time from a halt or when marching in quick time, the command is Double Time, MARCH.

 

When halted and on the command MARCH, the cadet begins with the left foot, raises the forearms to a horizontal position along the waistline, cups the hands with the knuckles out, and begins an easy run of 180 steps per minute with 30-inch steps, measured from heel to heel. Coordinated motion of the arms is maintained throughout.

When marching in quick time and on the command MARCH (given as either foot strikes the ground), the cadet takes one more step in quick time and then steps off in double time.

 

To resume quick time from double time, the command is Quick Time, MARCH, with four steps between commands. On the command MARCH (given as either foot strikes the ground), the cadet advances two more steps in double time, resumes quick time, lowers the arms to the sides, and resumes coordinated arm swing.

 

To halt from double time, the command Flight, HALT is given as either foot strikes the ground, with four steps between commands. The cadet will take two more steps in double time and halt in two counts at quick time, lowering the arms to the sides.

 

The only commands that can be given while in double time are Incline To The Right (Left); Quick Time, MARCH; and Flight, HALT.


Flanking Movement and Face in Marching

 

Flanking Movement

 

Requirements: Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

Preparatory and command of execution given as the heel of the right foot strikes the ground. Action taken on the command of execution, MARCH

The command is Right (Left) Flank, MARCH, given as the heel of the right (left) foot strikes the ground. On the command MARCH, the cadet takes one more 24-inch step, pivots 90 degrees to the right (left) on the ball of the left (right) foot, keeping the upper portion of the body at the position of attention.

 

Then step off with the right (left) foot in the new direction of march with a full 24-inch step and coordinated arm swing. Arm swing is suspended to the sides as the weight of the body comes forward on the pivot foot.

 

The pivot and step off are executed in one count. This movement is used for a quick movement to the right or left for short distances only. Throughout the movement, maintain proper dress, cover, interval, and distance.

 

Face in Marching

Requirements: Halted at the position of Attention;
in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The command is Right (Left) Flank, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the cadet executes a 90-degree pivot on the ball of the right (left) foot and, at the same time, steps off with the left
(right) foot in the new direction with coordinated arm swing.

The pivot and step are executed in one count, and proper dress, cover, interval, and distance are maintained.


Forward March and Halt

 

Requirements: Halted or Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

 

To march forward in quick time from a halt, the command is Forward, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the cadet smartly steps off straight ahead with the left foot, taking a 24-inch step (measured from heel to heel), and places the heel on the ground first.

When stepping off and while marching, the cadet will use coordinated arm swing; that is, right arm forward with the left leg and left arm forward with the right leg. The hands will be cupped with the thumbs pointed down. The arms will hang straight, but not stiff, and will swing naturally.

The swing of the arms will measure 6 inches to the front (measured from the rear of the hand to the front of the thigh) and 3 inches to the rear (measured from the front of the hand to the back of the thigh). If applicable, proper dress, cover, interval, and distance will be maintained. Proper cadence will be adhered to.

Count cadence as follows: counts one and three are given as the heel of the left foot strikes the ground, and counts two and four are given as the heel of the right foot strikes the ground.

 

To halt from quick time, the command is Flight, HALT, given as either foot strikes the ground. On the command HALT, the cadet will take one more 24-inch step. Next, the trailing foot will be brought smartly alongside the front foot. The heels will be together, on line, and form a 45-degree angle. Coordinated arm swing will cease as the weight of the body shifts to the leading foot when halting.


Half Step

 

Requirements: Halted at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The command Half Step, MARCH is given as either foot strikes the ground. On the command MARCH, the cadet takes one more 24-inch steps followed by a 12-inch step (measured from heel to heel) in quick time, setting the heel down first without scraping the ground. The cadet maintains coordinated arm swing and continues the half step until marched forward or halted.

 

To resume a full 24-inch step, the command Forward, MARCH is given as the heel of the left foot strikes the ground. On the command MARCH, the cadet takes one more 12-inch step with the right foot and then steps out with a full 24-inch step with the left foot.

 

The halt executed from half step is similar to the halt executed from a 24-inch step. The half step is not executed from the halt nor are changes of direction made from the half step. It is executed only in quick time, and normal arm swing is maintained.


Marching Other Than at Attention

 

Requirements: Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

 

The commands below may be given as the heel of either foot strikes the ground as long as both the preparatory command and command of execution are given on the same foot and only from quick time. The only command that can be given when marching at other than attention is Incline to the Right (Left). Otherwise, the flight must be called to attention before other commands may be given.

 

Route Step March


The command is Route Step, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the cadet takes one more 24-inch step and assumes route step. Neither silence nor cadence is required, and movement is permitted as long as dress, cover, interval, and distance are maintained.

 

At Ease March


The command is At Ease, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the cadet takes one more 24-inch step and assumes at ease. Cadence is not given, and movement is permitted as long as silence, dress, cover, interval, and distance are maintained.

 

Flight Attention (used to call flight back to attention)


The command is Flight, ATTENTION. On the command ATTENTION, the cadet resume marching at the position of attention.


The Flight Leader immediately starts counting cadence. Cadets will individually execute Change Step if not in step with cadence.


Mark Time

 

Requirements: Halted or Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The command is Mark Time, MARCH. When marching, the command MARCH is given as either foot strikes the ground. The cadet takes one more 24-inch step with the right (left) foot. He or she then brings the trailing foot to a position so both heels are on line. The cadence is continued by alternately raising and lowering each foot. The balls of the feet are raised 4 inches above the ground. Normal arm swing is maintained.

 

At a halt, on the command MARCH, the cadet raises and lowers first the left foot and then the right. Mark time is executed in quick time only. The halt executed from mark time is similar to the halt from quick time.

 

To resume marching, the command Forward, MARCH is given as the heel of the left foot strikes the ground. The cadet takes one more step in place and then steps off in a full 24-inch step with the left foot.


To the Rear March

Requirements: Marching at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The command is To the Rear, MARCH, given as the heel of the right foot strikes the ground. On the command MARCH, the cadet takes a 12-inch step with the left foot, placing it in front of and in line with the right foot and distributes the weight of the body on the balls of both feet. 
Then pivot on the balls of both feet, turning 180 degrees to the right, and take a 12-inch step with the left foot in the new direction, with coordinated armswing, before taking a full 24-inch step with the right foot. While pivoting, do not force the body up or lean forward. The pivot takes a full count, and the arm swing is suspended to the sides as the weight of the body comes forward while executing the pivot, as if at the position of attention.


Right (Left) Step

Requirements: Halted at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The command is Right (Left) Step, MARCH, given only from a halt and for moving short distances. On the command MARCH, the cadet raises the right (left) leg from the hip just high enough to clear the ground. The leg will be kept straight, but not stiff, throughout the movement.

 

The individual places the right (left) foot 12 inches, as measured from the inside of the heels, to the right (left) of the left (right) foot. Transfer the weight of the body to the right (left) foot, then bring the left (right) foot (without scraping the ground) smartly to a position alongside the right (left) foot as in the position of attention. This movement is continued in quick time; the upper portion of the body remains at attention and arms remain at the sides throughout.

 

Cadence may be counted during this movement. Counts one and three are given as the right (left) foot strikes the ground. Counts two and four are given as the heels come together.

 

To halt from the right (left) step, the preparatory command and command of execution are given as the heels come together. The halt from the right (left) step is executed in two counts. On the command HALT, one more step is taken with the right (left) foot and the left (right) foot is placed smartly alongside the right (left) foot as in the position of attention.


Present Arms and Order Arms

Requirements: Halted at Attention; in Any Formation; at Close or Normal Interval; in the Cadence of Quick Time

The commands are Present, ARMS and Order, ARMS. On the command Present, ARMS, the cadet executes the first count of hand salute. Count two of hand salute is performed when given the command Order, ARMS.


Eyes Right (Left) and Ready Front


The commands are Eyes, RIGHT (LEFT) and Ready, FRONT. These commands may be given at a halt or while marching. The preparatory command and command of execution are given on the right (left) foot while marching. On the command RIGHT (LEFT), all cadets, except those on the right (left) flank, turn their heads and eyes smartly 45 degrees to the right (left). To return their heads and eyes to the front, the command Ready, FRONT is given as the left (right) foot strikes the ground. On the command FRONT, heads and eyes are turned smartly to the front.

 

During parade, flight commander gives commands with a delay of three steps between the preparatory and command of execution.


On the preparatory command Eyes (given approximately six paces from the reviewing stand), the guide raises the guidon straight up.


On the command of execution RIGHT, the guide lowers the guidon to the horizontal position; at which time, everyone except the fourth element, turns head and eyes 45 degrees to the right as the left heel strikes the ground.

On the preparatory command Ready, (given when the last rank is at least six paces past the reviewing stand), the guide raises the guidon straight up. On the command of execution FRONT, the guide lowers the guidon to the carry position: at which time, everyone with head and eyes to the right turns them back to the front as the right heel strikes the ground.

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